What are the advantages and disadvantages of the ternary lithium battery and how long is the service life?
A ternary lithium battery is a secondary lithium-ion battery using three nickel-cobalt-manganese transition metal oxides as the cathode material. It combines the excellent performance of the lithium cobaltate cycle, the high specific capacity of lithium nickelate, and the increased safety and low cost of lithium manganate. It is a composite lithium intercalation oxide with multiple elements (such as cobalt and manganese) at the molecular level by mixing, doping, coating, and surface modification of synthetic nickel. It is a rechargeable lithium-ion battery that has been widely studied and applied.
First, what are the advantages and disadvantages of ternary lithium batteries?
The advantages of ternary lithium batteries are more diminutive size, higher capacity density, low-temperature resistance, and better cycling performance, and they are the mainstream of new energy passenger cars. Disadvantages: poor thermal stability, will decompose at 250-300 ℃, ternary lithium material chemical reaction is powerful. Once the oxygen molecules are released, the electrolyte will burn rapidly under high temperatures and burst into flames.
Ternary lithium batteries are relatively balanced in terms of capacity and safety and are batteries with excellent overall performance. The critical functions of these three metal elements, advantages, and disadvantages are as follows.
Co3+ reduces the mixed occupancy of cations, stabilizes the layered structure of the material, reduces resistance, increases conductivity, and improves cycling performance and speed.
Ni2+ can add new capacity to the material (energy density of new material volume). Due to the similar radius of Li and Ni, too much Ni can also cause mixed Li-Ni discharge due to the dislocation of Li and the concentration of nickel ions in the lithium layer. The larger the Li, the more difficult it is to de-interlace it in the layer structure, leading to poor electrochemical performance.
Mn4+: Not only it can reduce the material cost, but it also can improve the safety and stability of the material. However, if the content of Mn is too much, the spinel phase will quickly appear and destroy the laminate structure, thus reducing the capacity and decay of the cycle.
High energy density is the most significant advantage of ternary lithium batteries. The voltage platform is an essential indicator of battery energy density, which determines the vital efficiency and cost of the battery. An-time batteries with a higher voltage platform and ternary Li-ion batteries have longer battery life. The discharge voltage platform of a single ternary lithium battery is as high as 3.7 V. In comparison, lithium iron phosphate is 3.2 V, and lithium titanate is only 2.3 V. Therefore, from the perspective of energy density, ternary lithium batteries are better than lithium phosphate, and lithium manganate or lithium titanate has absolute advantages.
Poor safety and short cycle life are significant drawbacks of ternary lithium batteries, especially the safety performance, which has become an essential factor limiting its large-scale implementation and large-scale integrated applications. Many practical tests show that high-capacity ternary batteries are challenging to pass safety tests such as acupuncture and overload, which is why high-capacity ternary batteries usually introduce more manganese or even use manganate.
Second, how many years of the life of ternary lithium batteries can work?
The academic life of ternary lithium batteries is about 800 cycles, the average life of commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Lithium iron phosphate lasts about 2,000 cycles, while lithium titanate reaches 10,000. Conventional battery manufacturers have committed their ternary cells to specifications over 500 times (charging and discharging under standard conditions). Still, after assembling the cells into a battery pack, the lifetime is about 400 times due to problematic resistances, where the relationship between resistance and internal resistance is not identical.
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